Medicine (category filter × )

Antibody injection stops peanut allergy for 2 to 6 weeks, study shows

med.stanford.edu
  • New type of peanut allergy treatment could potentially be used to treat all food allergies in the future.
  • Study on 20 adults with severe peanut allergies shows that an antibody treatment, called etokimab, can stop a key molecule from activating the immune system.
  • Two weeks after just one injection, 11 people could eat a small serving of peanuts with no allergic reaction.
  • The treatment still has a lot of studies to go through before being approved.

To Survive in the Human Gut, Bacteria Need Genetic “Passcode”

hhmi.org
  • Studying the gut microbiome, scientists found that bacteria which protect us from toxins do so by inheriting immunity genes against those toxins.
  • In lab dishes and in living mice, transferring genes from a specific bacteria instantly immunised against that bacteria’s toxin.
  • Which means that all our microbiomes are different, and treatments targeting the microbiome need to be highly personalized.
  • Understanding how to do it will lead to better probiotic and live biotherapeutic treatments, which hold great promise as a way to battle sickness.

Transcutaneous auricular vagus nerve stimulation at 1 Hz modulates locus coeruleus activity and resting state functional connectivity in patients with migraine: An fMRI study

sciencedirect.com
  • Study explores the process of relieving migraine with electrostimulation of vagus nerve (longest nerve in our bodies) endings in the ear.
  • Transcutaneous auricular vagus nerve stimulation (taVNS) at 1hz can prevent migraines, but it was previously unknown how it happens.
  • Researchers regularly scanned the brains of 29 patients, and analysis showed taVNS at 1hz changes the activity and connectivity of certain brain regions.
  • These regions are associated with the pain modulation system, and further studies are required to fully understand the neural mechanisms that make taVNS effective.

A Third "Short Sleep" Gene Has Been Discovered – And It Prevents Memory Deficits

technologynetworks.com
  • Third “short sleep” gene has been discovered, and it’s the first one that also prevents memory deficits related to sleep deprivation.
  • Researchers identified a mutation in the neuropeptide S receptor 1 (NPSR1) in a father-and-son pair who sleep ~5 hours on average.
  • Not only does it promote short sleep, but also prevents memory problems related to low amounts of sleep.
  • The field of sleep genetics is advancing rapidly, and researchers are uncovering the role of genes in our sleeping habits.
  • This discovery is an important step to create more effective treatments for sleeping disorders.

Molecular control of neurotransmitter linked to autism described

news.yale.edu
  • Scientists get closer to understanding how disruptions in the GABA neurotransmitter cause disorders such as epilepsy, schizophrenia and autism.
  • They took a look at KCC2, a transmitter that releases chloride in cells in a process called phosphorylation.
  • That chloride regulates what GABA does, and plays a crucial role in brain development.
  • It turns out that phosphorylation is reversible, so it’s possible to modulate it with drugs for better treatments.

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